巴西电影文化展

时间:2011年8月20日至25日
地点:西安(中国)美术馆
展品:纪录电影《巴西-爱之诗》(剪辑版,28分钟)、纪录视频《圣保罗“巴西2013年中国主题嘉年华”》(12分钟),纪录电影《巴西-爱之诗》画面截图120幅
活动:纪录电影《巴西-爱之诗》中国巴西学术研讨会

事件

二零零零年,中国摄影师张彦君夫妇作为策划和执行者,带着三名巴西随员,携带当时最先进的数字影像采集及户外设备,驾驶美国克莱斯勒汽车公司改装的吉普越野车、巴西造雪佛莱越野车和福特牌供给车,开始了一项史无前例的影像工程,在巴西拍摄记录电影《文化的魅力─巴西·爱之诗》。他们从“世界移民的大熔炉”圣保罗出发,抵达了第一个被命名的巴西城镇嘎纳内伊亚。沿当年来南美洲淘金客的路线,经南美洲著名的海滨城市佛罗利亚·瑙布理斯、巴拉纳州首府库里基巴、“德国城”布鲁梅瑙到达沼泽地城市米兰达,由巴西和玻利维亚边境城市古隆巴进入亚马逊河流域。在米兰达往古隆巴的途中,三名随员相继离开。进入沼泽地后不久,向导也不愿继续随行。接连意外令这个充满梦幻的文化探秘旅行变成了凶险相伴的险地求生。整个过程历时十年,共走了十六公里,有八万三千名巴西人参与。拍摄了二十万张图片和六千三百小时记录影像。

自序

这是一次非凡的拍摄经历。从感性计划到图片猎奇,从影像探秘到“无人区”险地求生。

传奇经历造就了这部伟大的电影。从世界移民的熔炉到南美洲土著城镇,到深居无人区的淘金客。我们第一次用影像描述种族文化的融合,展示亚马逊河深处的未知世界,展现被遗忘的族群和他们不为外界了解的神秘文化。

从性感美艳、风姿卓越的海滩文化的魅惑到“最后边疆处女地”的神圣不可侵,从中世纪遗风的循规蹈矩到圣保罗对财富无所顾忌的张扬,从人文经济的典范“嘉年华”盛会的华丽到弥漫着爆炸的欢乐气息到“斑达勒篓”满怀对故乡忠诚而又模糊的思念吟唱出的无限哀婉与忧伤……

影片的第一部分以表现“巴西人的庆典”为主题。巴西“庆典”的功能是制造“集体沸腾”,盛行各地,寄生于种族的聚居地,形式是传统展示。影像透过“繁荣本域”展示了以“壮大族群实力”为目标的种族纷争。

第二部分“我们的海,世界的海”探讨一些观点和社会变化。在殖民者命名的第一个巴西城镇,国家现代化和奴隶制度废除没有对这里产生大的影响。从葡萄牙人在这里登陆,到后来“有不计其数的远征、探险家、冒险家、海盗和海贼光顾”,这里的人对“过客”已不再有当初的好奇,舶来宗教取代了他们的信仰和仪式,古老的印第安人生活方式和现代文明并存。

第三部分“斑达勒篓”聚焦当年来斑达瑙淘金客的后裔,他们已经成为巴西的一个新族,这一代人怀着对先祖的敬仰,生息在被蛮荒阻隔的“世外桃源”。

影片在最后将视线转到世界最大的移民城市圣保罗。这里居住着世界人种最复杂的八千万人。共同的梦想使不同的种族变成一个“纯正的族群”—圣保罗人。“世界移民大熔炉”历练出绚丽多姿、匪夷所思的“本土文化”,它展现于人们的精神上以及感官上,深入到生活的每一个层面。

张彦君
二零零九年二月十日于巴西圣保罗

沸斯达

巴西人“沸思达”(庆典)的功能是“制造集体沸腾”。“沸思达”是巴西社会的调谐器,制造沸腾、化解冲突、流行传统、收集资源、建立理想……。嘉年华会、啤酒节、圣保罗人节、圣灵节……,数不尽的“沸思达”向世人展示着一个不同文化形成的巴西。开拓殖民、宗教现象、神话传说、自然奇迹、历史事件、城市纪念等,这些被当做“沸思达”主体的渊源并非必须验证。在巴西,“沸思达”被当做取得资格的开始,通过仪式区别人群。透过“沸思达”,许多小组的意志、成就和组织水平得以展示,影响着政治和经济。“沸思达”还是官方机构提名候选人的预选会。事实上,“沸思达”是巴西人生活中不可或缺的基本元素。巴西人坚信,“沸思达”可以改良社会,使国家走向理想。

第一个城镇

大农场、海滩、河、瀑布和热带灌木、远古动物区系、珍奇植物群……

嘎纳内亚由马基姆·阿丰索在一五三一年八月十二日建立,一五三二年一月二十二日被正式定名。之后,这里有不计其数的远征、探险家、冒险家、海盗和海贼光顾。历经五百年的洗礼,巴西第一个正式城镇的街道、建筑、宗教、节日、习俗等大多依旧如初。今天,这里是一个名符其实的巴西小镇。

十五世纪,在欧洲传闻黑贝拉·依瓜贝河区域有大量黄金,且无需勘探和开采。这个传闻促使葡萄牙王室为扩大殖民地发动了一次大规模的南大西洋远征。在马基姆·阿丰索的指令之下,舰队来到蚌·阿布里沟岛的荒野。他们发现了一个有二百人的印第安人部落,之后,这里是西班牙和葡萄牙的流放地,直到十六世纪初。

嘎纳内亚的名字源自这个区域的最古老传说中海·大地酋长马拉塔亚马的女儿嘎尼内。

斑达瑙

沼泽地位于巴西西部广阔的高地上,面积达六万四千平方公里。尽管这里异常辽阔复杂,然而人们企图征服它的欲望却是历久弥新,不受时间影响。一批又一批的人潮扑向这块心目中理想的乐土,虽然需要雇佣抢手来抵御不速之客,但仍无法阻止冒险家和梦想家们的欲望。开拓的过程中,难免会有铩羽而归的输家。被疟疾、当地热病击溃和不耐披荆斩棘之苦的拓荒者,又缩进圣保罗的贫民窟。

第一批进入沼泽地的人是一七二零年抵达此地寻找黄金的“先锋旗队”,这是一支在巴西历史上产生深远影响的强劲之旅。先天具备母系(印第安血统)遗传的开拓、探险的精神和求生的技能,再加上从葡萄牙父亲那儿继承的对财富利益的渴望和忘我的追求,以及游牧民族的流浪性格,使得他们义无反顾地浪迹天涯。

在人与自然的抗争、人与动物的较量以及人与人的争斗中,全部的意义仅仅是为了生存,为了留下来。他们顽强地坚守着这片以生命和鲜血为代价征服的领地,他们也日复一日辛勤地维护和建设着它,毕竟这片浩瀚无垠的区域有着太多的意味深长的未知,明日无尽的财富召唤着他们的坚韧的耐性和不可动摇的信心。他们可以唱着忧伤怀念的歌谣,却绝不会影响他们对现在和未来已拥有的和将拥有的一切财富的捍卫和获取。这就是斑斑达瑙人。他们在这片不适合人类生存的地方谱写着自己的乐章—“光荣与梦想”。

亚马逊河

亚马逊河于一五零零年被探险家维森·亚内斯发现。

从发现开始,人们就试图认识他、征服他并占有他的财富。

亚马逊河流域动人的传说故事与其无情的现实情况是互相冲突的,尽管人类在此不乏残酷不仁的作为,然而大自然在亚马逊河流域所展示的微妙报复行动,一次次令亚马逊的梦想成空。

在二十世纪初,巴西的中央政府担心西部地区扩展势力,于西元一八九零年受命隆顿展开一项划时代的军事任务,在世界最大的沼泽地和原始森林开辟道路、建设电讯网络。许多部属被疟疾夺取了性命。不过,隆顿那震撼人心,以森林为题材的精彩演讲,以及后来陪同前美国总统罗斯福远征亚马逊河所赢得的声望,都有助于他在一九一零年设立第一个印第安人保护处。对这项艰巨的工程让人们对于森林区和在那里的印第安住民的认识产生了重大影响,隆顿也因为其远大抱负的有效履行获得诺贝尔和平奖。

亚马逊河最为引人注目的陆地探险是前美国总统罗斯福和著名的巴西探险家与资深印第安人代理康迪多-隆顿率领的二十多名随员组成的探险队。他们于一九一三年从马托格罗索北部出发,在五十九天的探险活动中,共走了一千四百五十一公里。

重重的阻碍至今依然,亚马逊河的梦想至今亦然。造访者们的目标一致,冀望财星高照,一圆发财梦。

圣保罗

圣保罗于一五四四年由耶稣会教士创立。由于很少有欧洲妇女愿意到这餐风饮露的高原险地,男性殖民者渐渐与当地印第安女人结合,产生了一个新的人种,这就是巴西历史上著名的“先锋旗队”的祖先。

今天的圣保罗市已跃升为世界第四大都市。城内辽阔的工业园区展示着圣保罗强大的发展潜力,其规模和现代化程度,在当今世上也是数一数二的。比比皆是的摩天大楼、高雅的公寓和极尽奢华的深宅大院,也在夸耀着城内商业大亨的雄厚财力。

圣保罗是贫民窟的聚集地。声势浩大的贫民兵团居住在由锡铁皮和木板搭建成的破烂小屋,大约有二百万“圣保罗人”,还有来自干旱地区的乡间难民和源自巴西北部赤贫地带的移民及其后代,总数超过三百万。在圣保罗的有色人种之中有六十万左右日本人后裔,超过二十万的中国侨民,十多万移民来自不同的亚洲国家。

圣保罗近代的发展令人瞠目结舌,其魅力不仅是一日千里的惊人速度,更是它生生不息,持续不断的新与旧、外来和固有的混合。

关于巴西

这里没有白人、没有黑人、黄人,只有巴西人。

五百年前,航海家佩德罗·卡布尔率领葡萄牙舰队意外抵达南美洲大陆,这一历史事件标志着葡萄牙人征服巴西的开始。在随后的五百年里,巴西发生了一系列戏剧性的变革。葡萄牙人在缔造巴西殖民国的过程中奴役印第安人,大量引进非洲黑奴,大肆掠夺,也制造了大批混血儿。这些混血儿在后来产生的国家意识导致了巴西的独立。

一八八八年巴西最终废除了奴隶制后, 劳动力不足成为咖啡业发展的突出问题,直接引发了外国移民的高潮。巴西历史学家以一八零八年划界, 在此后到达巴西的外国人包括葡萄牙人均被视为外国移民。一八零八年,六百五十八名中国茶农从澳门和广州来到里约热内卢。一八一八年,一千六百八十二名瑞士移民移居里约热内卢州的新弗里堡。一八二四年,首批德国移民到巴西。一八七五年,意大利移民到巴西南部定居。一九零八年,第一批日本移民从桑多斯港登岸。随后,西班牙、法国、荷兰、土耳其、波兰、匈牙利、捷克、俄罗斯、叙兰亚、黎巴嫩、沙地亚拉伯、朝鲜、阿根廷、巴拉圭、乌拉圭、波利维亚、秘鲁、智利、东非、非洲、安哥拉、毛森毕等七十多个国家的移民也从四面八方涌来巴西。

移民在巴西的文化形成和外交活动种扮演了耐人寻味的角色。从十九世纪末起,巴西“不再求助于武力解决它在南美洲的领土争议,这个任务转由巴西外交来承担”。巴西以外交手段先后同乌拉圭、巴拉圭、阿根廷、玻利维亚、秘鲁、委内瑞拉、哥伦比亚以及法属圭亚那解决了边界问题。亚马孙河与拉普拉塔河的航行问题也以同样的方法得到解决。这些复杂的争端之所以轻易化解,归功于巴西外交巧妙地植入了“移民援助”。

巴西文化

土著印第安人、葡萄牙和非洲黑人三种文化相遇,它们在冲突中相互融合,形成了巴西文化雏形。大批外国移民的进入使巴西社会更加开放,文化成分更复杂。这些文化通过生产活动和其它社会活动,在冲突中进一步融合,形成了今天的巴西文化。

葡萄牙占领巴西,改变了业已存在的巴西印第安人的“部落公社制”社会形态。葡萄牙殖民者对印第安人社会的破坏有两种方式。首先,以战争、奴役和欧洲疾病传染造成印第安人人口锐减。其次,通过耶稣会教徒向印第安人传教,使其皈依西方文明。殖民者在破坏印第安人文化,使他们充当劳动力的同时,部分印第安传统文化也被融入以葡萄牙文化为主流的巴西社会。随着白人与印第安人的混血儿成为巴西人口的重要成分,巴西在一九八八年宪法开始承认土著印第安人的社会组织、语言、信仰和传统。

“引进”黑人对巴西文化的形成与发展产生巨大历史作用。一五五零年至一八五五年间约有四百万黑奴被贩运至巴西,其中绝大部分是男性。当时巴西正处在蔗糖周期和矿业周期,需要大量劳动力,因此甘蔗甚至被称为“奴隶作物”。黑奴取代了印第安人,成为巴西社会的主要劳动力。与此同时,黑人也把自己的饮食习惯、宗教信仰、音乐与舞蹈,以及农作物种植和矿物开采技术带到巴西。黑人妇女承担白人家庭的家务和扮演奶娘的角色,直接地促成了文化的交流和融合。

The film culture exhibition of Encantos da Cultura – Poemas de Amor do Brasil

In 2000, Chinese photographer Yanjun Zhang and his wife, as both planners and executants, followed by three Brazilians and equipped with the most advanced digital photography collector and outdoor equipments, and driving jeep SUV modified by CHRYSLER MOTOR CORPORATION, Brazil-made Chevrolet SUV and Fort-supplied vehicle, began their unprecedented photography project, to create the documentary film Encantos da Cultura – Poemas de Amor do Brasil, from Sao Paulo, “the melting pot of world’s immigrants” to Cananéia, the firstly-named Brazilian city. Along the line traveled by gold washers, through Florianópolis, the famous coastal city of South America, Curitiba (capital of Parana State) and the “German Town” Blumenau, they reached the swampland city Miranda and entered Amazonia from Columba, the border city between Brazil and Bolivia. On the way from Miranda to Columba, the three followers left successively, and after entering the swampland, the guide was unwilling to continue either. Successive accidents turned this dreamlike culture exploration travel to the dangerous survival-exploration. The whole project costs 10 years with a journey of 150,000km traveled, 200,000 pictures shot with 83,000 participants and 6,300 hours of image records.

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This was an extraordinary photography experience, from a perceptual plan to a hunt for photos, and from a video exploration to a survival exploration in the “depopulated zone”.

It was the legendary experience that created this great film. From the fusion of world immigrants to the towns of South American aborigines and to the gold washers who lived alone in the depopulated zone, we, for the first time, used video to describe the fusion of ethnic cultures and exhibit the unknown world deep in the Amazon River, as well as the forgotten ethnic groups and their mysterious culture unknown to the outside world.

From the enchantment of graceful, charmful and distinguished beach culture to the sacred “last frontier virgin land”, from the observance on the orthodox custom left from the middle century to Sao Paulo unscrupulous show of its wealth, and from the of the model of humane economy, “Carnival” festival’s magnificence and joyful atmosphere suffused with explosions to Pantaleiro’s royal but blurry missing to the birth land, fully singing out infinite pathos and grief ….

The first part of the film is themed on celebrations (Festa). Its purpose is to create “collective ebullience”, popular among all regions, rooted in a habitation of certain races and displayed in the traditional form. The film explores racial conflicts for enlarging the power of ethnic groups by way of “prosperity of domain”.

The second part, “Our Sea, the Sea of the World” (A MAR, O MAR) discusses varying viewpoints and social changes. In the first Brazilian town (Cananéia) named by colonists, state modernization and the abolition of slavery haven’t left much impact. From the time when the Portuguese landed to the period when countless expeditions, adventurers, explorers, pirates and sea thieves came and left, the local inhabitants have lost their initial curiosity towards the passers-by. Imported religion has taken the place of their traditional faith and ceremonies and the Indian’s ancient way of life coexists with modern civilization.

The third part, Pantaleiro focuses on the descendants of gold prospectors, who have become a new ethnic group in Brazil. Cherishing and respecting their ancestors, these people live in a paradise isolated by wilderness.

Finally, the film turns its focus to Sao Paulo, the largest immigrant city in the world and a melting pot of all races. There are eighty million people with the most complex races around the world living here. The common dream impelled different ethnicities to unite into a “pure ethnic group” – St. Paulers (Paulista). With experience and toughening, this great “melting pot of world’s immigrants” has formed a splendid and fantastic “Local Culture”, as is reflected on the spiritual and sensory levels of their people and rooted in various aspects of life.

Yanjun Zhang
On February 20, 2009 in Sao Paulo

First

“Festa” is kind of tuner, which is used to create ebullition, defuse conflicts, popularize the tradition, collect resources and establish ideals……numerous “Festa” activities such as Brasil Canaval, Oktoberfest, Festas Paulistas and Festa do Divino Espírito Santo, etc., show to the world a Brazil formed by diverse cultures. Exploration colonization, bear festival, phenomenology of religion, tales of legendia, natural wonders, historical events and city commemoration, etc. are regarded as the main origin of “Festa” and have not to be verified. In Brazil, “Festa” is viewed as the beginning of being qualified to distinguish people through ceremony. Through “Festa”, many groups have embodied the will, achievement and organization level, reflecting the polity and economy. “Festa” is still the primary meeting to nominate the candidates by official bodies. In fact, “Festa” is the basic factor indispensable to the life of Brazilian, who firmly believe that “Festa” can amend the society and help the country to realize the dream.

The first Brazilian town

Large farms, beaches, rivers, waterfalls, tropical bushes, preservation area of the primitive animals and rare floras ……

Cananéia was established by Martim Afonso de Souza on August 12, 1531 and named officially on January 22, 1532. There had been numerous expeditors, adventurers, explorers, and pirates coming here since then. After 500 years of development in twists and turns, the first official town of Brazil with its streets, architecture, religion, festivals and customs remaining in its original appearance has got its worthy name in the whole country.

During the15th century, there came a message in Europe that huge amounts of gold was laid in the area of Rio Ribeira do Iguape, the discovery of which did not necessarily involve hard detection or exploration. The rumor could have promoted the whole Portuguese royal court to make up its mind to launch an expedition of the southern Atlantic Ocean of the largest scale in the history. Led by Martim Afonso de Souza, the warships came to the wildness of Ilha do Bom Abrigo, in which they discovered an Indian town with 200 habitants. Later on, it had been a place of exile for the Spain and Portuguese until the beginning of the 16th century.

The name of Cananéia was originated from a girl named Caniné in an antique legend. According to the legend, she was the daughter of Maratayama, i.e. the chief of the sea and the land (in which mara means mar and tayama means terra).

Pantanal

Pantanal is located in the wide plateau in the western Brazilian, covering an area of 40,000 square miles. Despite the complexity and wideness of the wetlands, the desire of the human being to conquer it has never been changed in its long history. Streams of people had been to the land of paradise one after another to achieve their dream even under the threat of Pistoleiros’ guns. What the adventurer cannot deal with is their own desire and the determination of conquering the land. There were losers who might even have lost their lives. Some frontiers suffering a lot from the malaria and pyrexia and incapable of bearing the pains of path breaking were moved back to the slums of Sao Paulo.

The first batch of frontiers ever into Patanal was the bandeirantes for the gold mining in 1720, which had left far-reaching and profound influence in the history of Brazil. Bearing the half blood of Indian and Portuguese, together with the maternally-inheritated spirits of frontiering and exploration, skills of survival from their Indian mothers and the paternally-inheritated desire for fortune and interests, they recklessly travel around the world instinctively out of the nature of nomadic tribes.

The struggles between the human being and the nature, the animals and those among human beings are mainly for the purpose of survival. They have been guarding the territory at the price of their lives and blood, constructing and maintaining it with their shoulder to collar day by day. After all there is too much unseen in the vast land and the innumerable fortune and treasure on it always calls up their tough patience and unshakeable faith. Singing the nostalgic ballads as they might be, their determination of safeguarding and obtaining the existing fortune at present and those coming in the future will never be influenced. These are the pantaleroes, who have been writing their own chapter of glory and dream on the land disagreeing with the survival of human beings.

Amazon River

Amazon River was discovered by Vicente Yanez Pinson, an explorer, in 1500.

Since it was discovered, people have always attempted to know and conquer it and occupy its fortune.

The moving legendary tales of Amazon River conflicted with ruthless realities. Despite of cruel conducts of human beings here, the subtle revenge activities carried out by the Nature in Amazon River basin destroyed the dream to occupy Amazon River again and again.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the central government was concerned about the expansion forces in the western region, appointing Candido Rondon to involve in a breakthrough military task to blaze trails and lay telecommunication networks in the largest wetlands and primitive forests in the world. A lot of tribes lost the lives of their people to the malaria. However, Rondon gained his fame in the history by his eloquent speech of heartquake on the theme of forest and his escort of the former president Roosevelt in the expedition of the Amazon River, resulting in the establishment of the first Indian Shelter in 1910. The tough construction made the the forest and its Indian tribes more understandable to the world and Rondon also got the Nobel Peace Prize for the effective implementation of his ambitions.

The most remarkable land expedition along the Amazon River was made by the team under the co-leadership of the former US president Roosevelt, famous Brazilian adventurer and the senior Indian agency Candido-Rondon. Setting off from the north of Mato Grosso, they travelled all the way for 59 days, covering a distance of 1451 kilometers.
Obstacles block the way to the dream of Amazon as usual. The visitors with the consistent craving for fortune are still negotiating with the mysterious river now.

Sao Paulo

Sao Paulo was established by Jesuits in 1544. As few European women were willing to come to this arduous plateau, male colonists gradually got married with local Indian women, so that gave birth to a new race, the ancestors of the famous “pioneers” in Brazilian history.

Today, Sao Paulo has become the world’s fourth largest city. The vast industrial parks display its great development potential, whose scale and up-to-dateness are rare in the world. Numerous skyscrapers, exquisite departments and extremely luxurious mansion with spacious courtyards boast of the abundant fortune of the business tycoons of the city.

However, Sao Paulo also concentrates a large number of slums. A total of over 3 million poor people live in small broken houses built up with algams and wood boards, among which 2 million are “St. Paulers” (Paulista) and others are refugees from arid regions and immigrants as well as their offspring from destitute areas of northwest Brazil. Among the coloured races, there are about 600 thousand Japanese descendants, over 200 thousand Chinese emigants and over 100 thousand migrants from other Asian countries.

Sao Paulo develops at an astonishing speed in modern times. Apart from that, its charm also lies in the endless melting of the new and the old as well as the extrinsic and the intrinsic.

About Brazil

When cultures of Indians, Portuguese and African Blacks met, they melted while conflicted, which formed the rudiment of Brazilian culture. The entry of numerous immigrants made the Brazilian society more open and the cultural ingredients more complex. These cultures further melted in conflicts through production activities and other social activities and formed present Brazilian culture.

After Portugal occupied Brazil, the original social formation of “clan communalism” of Brazil Indians was changed. Portuguese colonists destroyed the Indian society in two ways. Firstly, they sharply decreased the population of Indians through wars, enslavement and contagion of diseases from Europe. Secondly, Jesuits missionized the Indians to have them convert to western civilization. While the colonists destroyed Indian culture and changed them to labor forces, the traditional Indian culture partly melted into Brazilian society which took Portuguese culture as the mainstream culture as well. As half-breeds of white people and Indians became an important component of Brazilian population, Brazil began to acknowledge the social organizations, languages, beliefs and traditions of Indians in constitution issued in 1988.

The “introduction” of black has a significantly historical influence on formation and development of Brazilian culture. From 1550 to 1855, about 4 million black slaves were sold to Brazil and most of them were male. At that time Brazil, in its sugar period and mining period, needed a large number of labors so that sugarcane was even called as “slave crop”. Black slaves replaced Indians to become major labors of Brazilian society. Meanwhile, black slaves brought their dietary habits, religious beliefs, music and dance as well as technologies of crop planting and mineral mining to Brazil. Black women undertook the household chores of white families and played a role of wet nurse, which directly favored the communication and melting of cultures.

Brazilian history

There are no white people, black people or yellow people but Brazilian.

500 years ago, Pedro Álvares Cabral, a navigator, led the Portuguese fleet to South America accidentally, which symbolized the beginning of Portuguese conquest to Brazil. And in the 500 years afterwards, a series of dramatic transformations happened to Brazil. In the course of creating Brazil to its colonial country, Portuguese enslaved Indians, introduced a large number of African slaves and violently grabbed and at the same time gave birth to many half-breeds who brought independence of Brazil with their state awareness acquired afterwards.

After slavery was abolished in Brazil in 1888, shortage of labors became a serious problem for coffee industry development, which directly triggered large-scale immigration. Brazilian historians regard the foreigners including Portuguese who came to Brazil after 1808 as immigrants. In 1808, 658 Chinese tea growers came to Rio de Janeiro from Macao and Guangzhou. In 1818, 1,682 Swiss immigrated to Nova Friburgo of Rio de Janeiro. In 1824, the first German immigrants came to Brazil. In 1875, Italians immigrated to and settled in the south of Brazil. In 1908, the first Japanese immigrants landed at Porto de Santos. Later, immigrants from over 70 countries, including Spain, France, Netherlands, Turkey, Poland, Hungary, Czech, Russia, Syria, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Korea, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia, Peru, Chile, East Africa, Africa, Angola, and Mozambique, came to Brazil.

Immigration plays a significant role in culture formation and diplomatic activities of Brazil. Since the late nineteenth century, Brazilians have “began to resort to diplomacy rather than force to settle its territorial dispute in South America” in the course of defending and expanding its territory. By this means, Brazil successively settled border disputes with Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, Venezuela, Colombia and French Guiana as well as navigation issues of Amazon River and Labrador River. Easy settlement of these complex disputes owes to the “immigrant aid” embedded in Brazilian diplomacy.

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